Chap 5 Scope Management
 Scope Management Processes

l         Scope used to define what is or isn’t included in the project.

l         專案團隊和關係人必須對結果產品及流程達到共識。 

 

l         Scope Definition:

n      There is a difference between the product scope and the project scope. The scope of the project may be much larger than the scope of the product! 

n      Product Scope(產品範疇):

u    產品規格書,The feature and functions of a product or service.

n      Project Scope(專案範疇):

u    執行事項及流程,The work to be accomplished to deliver a product or service.

l         Scope Baseline

n      Includes Project Scope statement (PSS), WBS and WBS Dictionary.


l    

5.1 Collect Requirements

 

l     Collect Requirements

n      界定與記載利益關係人需要,以符合專案目標。

n      需求包含量化及記載贊助人、顧客以及其他利益關係人之需要和期望。

n      需求是WBS的基礎,成本、時程以及品質之規劃都必須建築在需求基礎之上。

n      需求發展始於針對起案階段的專案許可證(4.1)和利益關係人登記簿(10.1)所包含資訊的分析。

l     Tools & Techniques

n      Interviews: one by one by asking questions and recording responses.

n      Focus Group: 類似市場調查, 6-12 ppls participate with an experienced hoster. Use one way mirror and AV recording.

n      Facilitated Workshop: 研討會,兩方討論, Brings key cross-functional stakeholders together.

n      Group Creativity Technique:

u    Brainstorming(腦力激盪),

u    記名投票,

u    Delphi technique(德爾非技術):對各個專家分別給予問卷,目標是達到共識,

u    Idea/Mind mapping(心智圖),

u    Affinity Diagram(親和圖): 將類似的想法等歸為同一類﹐以利進一步的分析﹐進而找到對策﹐常用在腦力激盪法之後﹐用來整理龐大﹑無章的眾多想法﹐最後收斂到少數幾個可行的方案。此方法為Kawakita Jiro所提出﹐所以又稱為KJ Analysis

n      Group Decision Making Tezhnique: 團體決策,投票決定

n      Questionnaires and surveys, Observations and Prototypes.

 

 

l     Outputs

n      Requirements Documentation

u    Describes how requirements meet business need

n      Requirements Management Plan

u    Describes how requirements be managed in the project and how change to the scope be managed.

u    Ex: Define who approve change in scope.

n      Requirements Traceability Matrix

u    A table links requirement to original request.

 


l        

5.2 Define Scope

 

l     Define Scope

n      發展專案和產品的細部說明。詳細專案範圍說明(PSS)的準備會影響專案成敗,是根據起案時所記載的主要交付項目、假設以及限制。

n      規劃時,由於獲得更多專案資訊,專案範圍會更明確地界定與說明。會分析現有風險、假設、以及限制完成與否,並視需要增加新的風險、假設、以及限制

 

l     Tools & Techniques

n      Product analysis & Alternative identification

u    分析產品,依照產品特性規劃選擇方案。

 

l         Outputs

n      Project Scope Statement(PSS)

u    Is a detailed description of the scope.

u    Includes: Acceptance criteria(驗收準則), Deliverables, Exclusions, Constrains and Assumption(限制&假設)


l    

5.3 Create WBS

   

l     Create WBS

n      Dividing the project deliverables into smaller components.

n      WBS是將專案交付項目和專案工作細分為較小、較易管理的組件。

n      WBS是專案團隊爲了滿足專案目標並產生所需交付項目所需執行工作之交付項目導向的階層,愈下層代表更詳細的專案工作定義。

n      WBS組織與界定專案的整個範圍,包括現有已核准的專案範圍說明(PSS)既定的工作。

 

l     Tools & Techniques

n      Decomposition

u    Dividing major projoect into smaller, more manageable components until deliverables are defined to work package level.

 

l     Outputs

n      Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

u    A graphical representation of the hierarchy of the project.

u    WBS forces the project team to think through all the levels of the project.

u    團隊成員必須對於WBS的內容有共識

u    If a task is not in the WBS, then it is not part of the project.

n      WBS Dictionary(WBS.D)

u    Explains all the WBS components.

u    To descripe the Work Package.

n      Scope Baseline. (includes PSS, WBS and WBS dictionary)

n      Project update.

 

 

 



n     

5.4 Verify Scope

 
驗證後的交付品送交客戶認證,依照是否達到Requirement Document的要求決定要AccpetChange Request.

 

l     Verify Scope

n      The project customer formally accepts the project deliverables.

n      The PM, sponsor, and customer inspect the product and verify that it meets the defined scope. (Stakeholders are not involved.)

n      Scope Verification happens at the end of each phase.

n      During the Verify Scope process customer gives feedback on work performed.

n      Verify Scope process focuses on customer acceptance, Perform Quality Control process focuses on correctness of work.

n      品質控管通常在範圍驗證之前執行,但是這兩個流程可以同時進行。

l     Tools & Techniques

n      Inspection (Review/ Audit/ Walk Through) 檢查

u    Including measuring, examming and testing to determine if project meet requirement and acceptance critria.


l        

5.5 Control Scope

 

l     Control Scope

n      Monitoring the status of project and managing scope changes.

n      控管範圍監督專案和產品範圍的狀態並管理對範圍基準的變更。

n      控管專案範圍確保所有變更申請和已建議的矯正或預防措施都透過執行整合變更控管流程(4.5)處理。

n      無法控管的變更通常稱為範圍蔓延(Scope Creep)

 

 

l     Tools & Techniques

n      Determining the cause and variance relative to the baseline.

n      Deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required.

  • 相關連結:

Joe's PMP筆記:
PMP應考指南
CHAP 4 Integration
CHAP 5 Scope
CHAP 6 Time
CHAP 7 Cost
CHAP 8 Quality
CHAP 9 Human Resource
CHAP 10 Communication
CHAP 11 Risk
CHAP 12 Procurement

 

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